White collar crime is very harmful to the economic progress of a county because it is conducted stealthily and as such it is very hard to detect unlike other forms of crime. They are conducted in most cases by professionals in their fields of operation. Ironically, even though white colour crimes can be very harmful than other crimes known, it is very hard to nail the criminals because of the weakness of legislation to address such economic saboteurs.
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1. Is jail time necessarily a true deterrent to white-collar criminals? Why or why not? Give examples, with explanations supporting your examples.
Interestingly, leave alone white collar crime even in other crimes jail terms have little if any deterrence effect because people do not even stop to think of the consequences rather the obedience of the motivating force. The white collar crime prison sentences do not act as deterrence to the crime because to begin with, the law meant to deal with the crime is very flimsy and it may be a nightmare to convict even one criminal (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011). It is important to note that white colour crimes are committed by officials high up in the organizations that understand the organizational terrain very well and therefore do not care about jail because they can manoeuvre their way around the system. They can also assess the risk of committing such a crime and as such, the crime they end up committing have negligible chances of ever being known. It is as well worth noting that the officials are usually wealthy and as such, they can buy their way out of bars. A good case in point here is that of Bernard Ebbers who the chief executive of WorldCom was. He had engineered 11 billion dollar fraud yet he is about to go scot free on account of weakness of the law not to mention that he was an intelligent criminal who understands all procedures and hence can circumvent them. (Lilly, Cullen, Ball, 2011).
2. How does “organizational culture” contribute to white-collar crime? Give examples, with explanations supporting your examples.
Organizational culture even though designed for the good of the organization; at times it can be harmful to the very organization, whose interests it is supposed to protect (Sherman, 2002). For instance, in most case, organizations have the major share holders sitting in the board of directors and making major decisions. In this case, they are likely to employ their cronies as in the management of the organization and as such, the managers would be working at behest of their masters. In the circumstances, it would be very easy for the owners to induce the managers to engage in some insider trading for their benefit after all they are the owners and as such, the managers would enjoy protection from the owners. On another note, the managers are the most knowledgeable people as far as the organizational inside information is concerned. They are as well knowledgeable people and as such for them to collude and commit some white colour crime and get away with it is very easy (National Crime Prevention Centre (Canada), 2012).

  1. Discuss the historical and social conditions in the US that gave rise to the new conservative theories. Provide examples.

There has never been a conservative political party and as such the two major political divides are republican and democrats in the United States (Sherman, 2002). While democrats are liberal the republicans are known to be conservatives. So where does this conservatism in the United States come from? The rise of conservatism theories in the United States has historical and social bearings. The historical conditions that have led to the rise of the new conservatism theories in the United States has something to do with the American experience in the numerous civil wars. Conservatives believe that the country will be more stable if things remain as they are and hence their urge to support the status quo. Their experience with civil wars leads them believe that having things as they are because only then security will be guaranteed (National Crime Prevention Centre (Canada), 2012).
The social conditions that led to the rise of new conservatism theories include the desire by the conservatism proponents to protect the social values of the American society that they feel were being threatened by secularism. For instance, the institution of marriage faces eminent extinction due to rise of too much liberalism as to support of gay marriages. Christianity as a social factor has as well contributed a great deal in rise of new conservatism theories (Sherman, 2002). Examples in the case of historical conditions that have led to conservatism is the cold war. Conservatism proponents believe that America is better off in terms of security when it does not engage in military offensives across the globe. The worsening social conditions such as rise of new diseases and health complications are a good case in point for rise of environmental conservatism. It is believed that conserving the environment would lead to better lives for the American people (National Crime Prevention Centre (Canada), 2012).
4. Explain the two aspects of “conservative theorizing” that make incarceration seem like a prudent practice. Do you agree or disagree with aspects – explain.
The two aspects of conservative theorizing that make incarceration seem like prudent are

  1. Ensuring that doing a crime does not pay and as such, measures such as long prison sentences are seen as ideal in crime deterrence. The rationale here is when the cost of doing crime is higher than the benefits; offenders will not find it attractive. In conservative theorizing therefore, the argument is that long incarceration periods behind bars will discourage people from committing crime. Those contemplating becoming criminals will be deterred by example of those already serving long prison sentences.
  2. In the second aspect of conservatism theorizing is the believe that there are those criminals who are already handed and as such, no matter what corrective measures are taken they cannot change. This informs the argument that only long prison sentences can control crime.

While I agree with the first aspects that deterring crime through long prison sentences can work i do not agree with the argument that some criminals are already past change. Everyone is capable of changing given the opportunity (Fennelly, 2004).
5. Discuss why the conservative theories of “getting tough on crime,” may be appear “ironic” when considered within the light of the Chicago School tenets that posited, bad neighbourhoods, not bad people, produced crime and delinquency.
The conservative theories of getting tough on crime appear ironic when considered in the light of the Chicago school tenets that hold that bad neighbourhoods and not bad people produce crime because people as they are would not indent to do crime rather the criminal mind is instilled in them by their surrounding and the prevailing circumstances (Fennelly, 2004). For instance, a child my never have had any intention to be a criminal in the first place. However, bad neighbourhood such as poverty and living in a crime invested area pushes them to criminal activities. In the case of poverty, people result to crime for survival reasons while being in crime invested area influence people to result to crime because others are doing it. However, these are not only criminal influencers because there is still the aspect of individual personality; some people are born criminals (Fennelly, 2004).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
 
Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., Ball, R.A., 2011, Criminological Theory, Context and Consequences, 5th Edition
National Crime Prevention Centre (Canada). (2012). Implementation fact sheets on promising and model crime prevention programs – 2012, Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre.
Fennelly, L. J. (2004). Handbook of loss prevention and crime prevention, Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Sherman, L. W. (2002). Evidence-based crime prevention, London: Routledge
 

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