Contrast the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response
Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity
The immune system is classically subdivided into two major categories: the adaptive and innate – even though the distinctions are in no way mutually exclusive. The differences between the adaptive and innate immune systems have to do with their mode of operation. Be design, the innate immune system is designed in such a way that it gives a kind of awe and shock protection against viruses, bacteria, as well as other body invaders. Whenever cells in the innate immune system come across or detect any body invades, they react by releasing inflammatory chemicals such as leukotriene and histamine to destroy it (Iwasaki &Medzhitov, 2004, P. 17). The immune invaders have antigens on their surfaces, which are signs that are easily detected by the immune system, which in return respond to action.
Generally, the innate immunity is a non-specific defense mechanism which comes into play within a few hours or immediately after an antigen has been detected in the body system (Introduction to Immunology Tutorial :Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity, 2000). The mechanisms can be inform of physical barriers for example on the skin, chemicals in the blood, as well as immune system cells which attack foreign cells within the body. In addition, the innate immune response is usually triggered by the antigen’s chemical properties.
Adaptive immunity on the other hand refers to antigen-specific response. Actually, the adaptive immune system is considered to be more complicated as compared to the innate immunity. In adaptive immune response, the antigen must first be recognized and then processed. After the antigen has been recognized, the adaptive immune system forms an army of immune cells particularly designed to attack the specific antigen. Also, adaptive immunity is comprised of a memory which determines future responses against particular antigens more specific. The immunologic memory created helps in preventing reinfection.
Introduction to Immunology Tutorial :Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity. (2000, May 24). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from www.biology.arizona.edu: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/immunology/page3.html
Iwasaki, A., & Medzhitov, R. (2004). Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses. Nature immunology, 5(10), 987-995.