Discuss the role of client departments in an organization (in functional areas such as Accounting, Marketing, Sales, Human Resources, Engineering, or Manufacturing) with respect to Information Technology. Define and discuss at least three issues/challenges related to this role in modern organizations. How would you address these issues/challenges?
An organization is a collection of different departments that are closely linked to meet client needs. There are specific functions that are performed by each of the client department within the organization. Some of client departments include: Accounting, Marketing, Sales, Human Resources, Engineering and Manufacturing. It is important to note that each of these departments affects information technology in a different way (Santucci 12).
Accounting Department:
This is the most vital section of the organization that is tasked with record keeping, financial transaction, preparation of budgets, and payment of salaries. However, with respect to information technology, the accounting department is tasked with the responsibility of establishing an effective accounting system that is linked to client departments. This system conducts evaluation measures, analysis and summaries of financial information that can be used by other department for decision making. The accounting systems communicates all financial information and reports to the user departments within and outside the organization.
The marketing and sales departments are closely linked to each other in terms of operations and functioning. As a system, marketing department connects the company to external surrounding. By using information technology, the geographical coverage of the business activities is broadened. Customers can access marketing and sales information through the automated systems, which are incorporated in marketing functions.
By integrating information technology into the sales department, the company is able to conduct automated sales through electronic stores. This has increased efficiency and revenues to many companies. The sales department tracks all the marketing process and sales activities through an integrated customer marketing. This function has been incorporated into the information technology platform to increase customer service.
Human Resources remain to be a key department within the company that is tasked with proves of identifying, attracting, recruiting, training and placement of personnel within the organization. In terms of information technology, human resources needs analysis has shifted to embrace integrated personnel management that facilitates faster recruitment and training of employees through electronic means. All communication about job duties and responsibilities are always communicated by the human resource department. It is now much easier to undertake such activities, when using automated systems.
Engineering products, designs and systems all seem to contribute to the development and growth of important structures within different sectors of organizations. With the integration of information technology into engineering processes, there is enhanced performance and faster access designs and structures. Since the main function if engineering is to create and develop architectural designs, it is much easier to execute this function through automated platforms of information technology. Manufacturing contributes to the conversion of raw materials to outputs for final consumption. Its integration into the electronic processes, implies that the manufacturing process can be enhanced leading to quality outputs (IBM, 12).
Challenges facing the role of client departments and how to address them
With an increased technological consumption, different client departments will be affected by a number of challenges. These include: confidentiality and privacy issues, hacking and malicious attacks and the maintenance of authenticated information structures.Confidentiality and privacy is a major issue that affects the flow of information through the client departments. There are high degrees of unauthorized access to departmental information and documents and harms the integrity of information technology and systems. Unauthorized access to information can be addressed by developing closed systems as opposed to open networks. Cases of hacking and malicious attacks on the systematic flow of information remain to be a big threat to most client department. This challenge can be addressed by ensuring that the system of network between the client department is protected by firewalls and other related measures. There is also the challenge of maintaining the originality of information structures within the organization. There should be separation of information policies within the network of client departments (IBM, 12).

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