Sample Essay on The Rise Of Colonialism In Africa
The empires in Europe and their needs to take control of the raw materials and untapped supplies abundant across Africa founded the development of Imperialism in Africa. The British territory was one of the primary wrongdoers in their effort at forming colonies throughout Africa for financial and strategic purposes (MacKenzie, 2005). The history of colonization in Africa started in the middle nineteenth century and pursued until the twentieth century for most of the European colonies leaving behind a path of fatality and destruction, as well as battles that still fume today because of the Imperialist tactics and attitudes of divide and overthrow. This approach used tried to enact policies that guaranteed a ‘divide and rule’ power control formula which ensured that the majority of the people within the settlements were in conflict with the ‘white’ minority in order to safeguard loyalty or rule for the imperialists. For instance, in South Africa, the ‘white’ minority usurped all positions of power while the natives, who were the indigenous majority, were subjected to a lower standard of living during foreign rule. Whereas native South Africans mainly preferred holding peaceful demonstrations, the ‘white’ minority were at times observed to go overboard in their overzealous attempts to quell any dissent by opening fire on demonstrators and practicing dehumanizing apartheid policies (Pomeroy, 1986). These effects of colonial rule still reverberate across many nations in Africa today because of comparable power control schemes as well as the lack of control on much sought after resources which are still controlled either by their former colonial masters or other wealthy nations.
On the other hand, the American Revolution was one in which violence was used to accomplish the goal of independence after peaceful negotiations with their British colonial masters failed (Polk, 2008). After enacting high tax policies that were clearly barefaced attempts at trying to extort money from the American colonies the revolution came into maturity and through the use of violence and war, migrant Americans won their independence. Strategic preparation, military establishment assistance from France, and the preparedness to use violence were all vital tools that guaranteed the success of the rebellion (Polk, 2008). The American Revolution was successful in its revolution as it was able to attain the freedom to trade, tax reduction as well as have state rights upheld for them. Despite the resistance that was put up, the level of success was clear when the revolution finally gained independence.
In pure contrast to the American Revolution and in conformity to the Nelson Mandela-led peaceful clamor for majority rule in South Africa, the Indian Movement secured a mass amount of supporters all through India following the non-violent and religious protests organized by Mahatma Gandhi. With the Indian Movement, theirs was more on collective identity to bring the Indians together which played a vital role in massing the locals against the intruders. Before Gandhi’s movement gained momentum, there were two divisions whereby one deployed violent confrontation techniques while the other group deployed non-aggressive forbearance. The fierce resistance was in operation during the guerrilla conflict tactics and imposed attacks of violence on the British military. The level of success was not immediate as this crusade never achieved the power necessary to result in real freedom for the nation state. Not until Gandhi became the leader did anyone take the non-violent attitude in the face of over bearing hostility and basic force that the world really took notice and granted this proper attention.
After gaining a sufficiently strong following, Gandhi made the choice to challenge Britain’s Imperialism through non-aggression in the facade of brutality because of the authority that Britain had with their military strength and the effect that he recognized that violence in the face of anger could have on his citizens. Beneath this rightful notion, Gandhi succeeded against these violent factors which had been existent since the eighteen hundreds. Independence was thus achieved through the induction of Gandhi’s leadership which brought the people together for a common purpose and thus winning over the violent confronters to win against the British (Pomeroy, 1986). The movement was successful in that it was able to gain independence for the country.
MacKenzie, J. M. (2005). The partition of Africa, 1880-1900 and European imperialism in the
nineteenth century. London: Methuen.
Polk, W. R. (2008). Violent politics: A history of insurgency, terrorism & guerrilla war, from the
American Revolution to Iraq. New York: Harper.
Pomeroy, W. J. (1986). Apartheid, imperialism, and African freedom. New York: International Publishers.- Positive and negative effects of colonialism in africa