Ethics in Healthcare Research and its Presentation Essay- Research Paper
In a paper of 1,250 words, discuss at least three ethical considerations regarding research and its presentation. Include in your paper a section discussing the mechanisms in place for the monitoring and ensuring ethical practice. Refer to at least five credible sources.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Clinical science has grown with the pooling of clinical facts to solve medical problems. The process of undertaking a medical research is painstaking. In addition, ethical issues are very important in conducting a medical research as the information directly affects the humanity, suffering. Ethical issues are important in reporting and execution of the research process, review and in editing of the articles. The research process must ensure that all information gathered is submitted in an honest manner. Research misbehavior is any aspect in research that fails to respect the ethical standards of patients. The varied forms of research misconduct include plagiarism, falsification and fabrication of information. Others may entail problems in medical research data analysis and presentation (Lo, 2009). When the article is submitted for publication in journals, it goes through a process of editing, and this is done to ensure that the ethical standards are not violated (Jain, 2010). This paper seeks to discuss in detail the three ethical considerations that the health care professionals must adhere to as they assume their responsibilities in research and their presentations.
Compassion and Honor for the Human Worth
Respect for the self-esteem of the human beings is important as it provides the foundation for good ethical qualities that include honesty, integrity, confidentiality and compassion (Lo, 2009). Compassion provides the main tenet of the societal covenant between the health providers and the community. Health care providers should be dedicated to the interests of their patients while conducting a research, and they should do whatever they can for them, to ensure that their self-esteem is maintained (Wolper, 2011). Consequently, it is unprincipled for a health care provider to make use of the patients’ weakness in order to boost their own profit. Healthcare organizations also have a primary duty of serving the patient’s needs and supporting the health care professionals by providing the necessary supplies, equipment, facilities, administrative staff, and support staff. This requires that they give special attention to the funding structure and the needs of the shareholders, physicians, patients, and researchers. The trustees and executives have the mandate to foster and develop institutional customs that are dedicated to the patients’ care.
Health care organizations must ensure that the primary goal of the institution is the patient’s care. Consequently, honor for the human dignity should apply to all patients regardless of their creed, race, age, or political background care (Mikesell et al., 2013). Accordingly, before patients are selected for the inclusion in a medical research, it always important for physicians or researchers to ask for their permission. Patients are supposed to be informed about the research and explained to, the possible harm or danger that they are being exposed to (Jain, 2010). This is a demonstration of respect for patients and their dignity. It demonstrates an ethical principle advocated by the Belmont Report on the need to respect subjects of medical researches by providing them with full information pertaining to the issue and it implications (Childress, 2005).
Pledge to Professional Competency
Health care professionals, trustees of the organizational providers and executives have a duty of ensuring that they continue to educate themselves. Moreover, they should ensure that they are aware of the requirements that their specific field entails for them to give the best practice. Health care practitioners who are misinformed, poorly trained or inexperienced can harm patients by giving the wrong information during the research presentation (Pozgar, 2012). All health care providers are obligated to adhere to continuous learning and have an open mind to accountability, to ensure that they maintain professional competencies. The Belmont Report requires that all medical practitioners and researchers adhere to principle of justice to provide the best equitable medical services to patients (Childress, 2005). No patient should be discriminated upon. The trustees and the executives serve patients by managing the health care facilities, in a competent manner. All healthcare providers have the responsibility of educating the community while gathering information for research processes. Seminars should be arranged where the community members are invited and taught on the need for more medical researches and why they should participate in helping the medical fraternity better the medical practice.
Dedication to a Spirit of Service
Health caregivers have a responsibility to provide care not only to individual patients but also to the society. According to the principle of beneficence as provided by the Belmont Report, the main aim of medical practitioners and researchers while conducting their operations should be to foster the general good for patients and community (Childress, 2005). To maximize community’s benefits, physicians should exercise their responsibilities by charging fair medical fees especially to the members of the society who are not able to afford the available medical care (Mikesell et al., 2013). Consequently, the organizations that are not for profit are also given aid that they are supposed to use to help the poor people in the society. During the research process, the health care givers look upon the public institutions and the political process for some form of aid so that they are also able to plan affordable medical care. Consequently, the financial and the ethical burden on the caregivers become impossible when they are unsupported. The executives in the health organizations are responsible for the financial accounting and for providing useful information about the costs, services, and the billing processes (Pozgar, 2012). Researchers on the other hand should ensure they practice honesty, while performing their duties. They should not take advantage of research funds for personal benefits. The interests of patients should be the primary interest of medical researchers.
Mechanisms for Monitoring and Ensuring Ethical Practice
Code of Medical Ethics
A physician has an obligation to do everything within their power for the benefit of the patient who is under their care. The policies that are in place for the allocation of the limited funds have the ability of limiting the physician’s ability to fulfill their duty to patients under their care. In addition, doctors have a task of using their professional proficiency in order to protect the interests of their patients. This should concern decisions made at the community level about the allocation of the health assets. The decisions made concerning the distribution of health resources among clients should ethically relate to the health need of the patient, and this is important while conducting a research (RamaRao, Friedland and Townsend, 2007). All clinicians should be aware of confidentiality while handling the patients’ information especially while undertaking a research.
The community has a responsibility to provide care to its members at all levels whether they can afford it or not. Physicians have the obligation to give their skill at a policy making stage, to help achieve this objective. As a result, ethical consideration requires that a fair process be used, to decide on the adequate health care (Wolper, 2011).
Nurses Code of Ethics
The moral values are an important part of the basis of the nursing profession. Additionally, the profession has a renowned concern for the wellbeing of the injured, the sick, vulnerable, and the social integrity. The concern is useful in the provision of care for the sick patients and the community at large. The nursing profession is comprised of alleviation of distress, prevention of illnesses, educating the community, promotion, protection and restoration of health in the care of families, individuals, groups and the society (Harris, 2010). The nurses act in favor of the aspects that detract from the well-being of an individual. The people who become nurses are not only supposed to stick to the ethical norms and the ideals of the career, but also they are supposed to embrace these ethics as part of the career. The code of ethics for nurses makes clear the standards, obligations and the primary goals of the occupation as a result, the ethical custom of the nursing profession is lasting, distinctive and self reflective. The code of ethics is useful in serving as the basis that makes the ethics of the profession to be non-negotiable and as the expression of the nurses understanding of their commitment to serve the society in all aspects. Additionally, it acts as a concise statement of the ethical duties of all individuals who join the nursing profession (Pozgar, 2012).
The health administrators must balance the needs of the business and the patient needs. They must assign revenues and make decisions that will positively impact the efficiencies of their operations. Medical administrators have to stick to the ethical principles of their profession when making all decisions and they have to ensure that the other caregivers are doing the same (Harris, 2010). The modern economic environment is giving the administrators many ethical challenges as they undertake many research programs to ensure that they are updated on the current health issues. This is because they have to consider the best interest of the patient despite the health care institutions becoming increasingly business oriented.
Pozgar, G. D. (2012). Legal aspects of health care administration. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Harris, M. D. (2010). Handbook of home health care administration. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Wolper, L. F. (2011). Health care administration: Managing organized delivery systems. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry. (2013). Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review. American Journal of Public Health, 103: 7-14. .
RamaRao Saumya, Friedland Barbara, and Townsend W. John. (Dec. 2007). A Question of Ethics: Research and Practice in Reproductive Health. Studies in Family Planning, 38(4): 229-241.
Lo, B. (2009). Resolving ethical issues in clinical research. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Jain K. Anil (Jul-Sep 2010). Ethical issues in scientific publication. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, 44(3): 235–237. Retrieved from <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2911920/>.
Childress, J. F. (2005). Belmont revisited: Ethical principles for research with human subjects. Washington, D.C: Georgetown Univ. Press.