European Imperialism in Africa Essay

There was hunger for land and control by European countries towards 20th century, which led to invasion of African countries. The Belgian King Leopold, in 1870s, sent his diplomatic representatives to Congo on a mission to establish trade. This act by Leopold sparked a series of imperialistic activities from other European countries towards Africa. Such countries included Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Britain, and Portugal. As a result, there was competition between these European countries for land and control over African countries. This led to the famous “Scramble for Africa” by European countries.

1.     Scramble for Africa

Africans and Europeans traded between 1450 and 1750 with establishment of few colonies along the coastlines of Africa by 1850s. These colonies included Algeria colonized by France, Copy Colony colonized by Great Britain, and Angola colonized by Portuguese. However, after the slave trade in early 1800s, there was lively trade between Europeans and African regions such Ethiopia and Sokoto Caliphate in western Africa and Egypt where manufactured goods were exchanged with gold, palm oil, and ivory among others. There were dramatic changes in latter half of 19th century where Europeans started exploring the interiors of Africa. By early 20th century, the European countries colonized almost all of the Africa countries with exceptions of Ethiopia and Liberia.

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