Health Inequalities  Sample Essay
Cardiovascular Disease
Despite the fact that the Native Americans are prone immense mortality rates, prevalence and high-risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, most researchers have overlooked this fact. The Native Americans are more exposed to this disease compared to other races. The disparities in the health issues regarding this fact are always not given what it deserves by the researchers. Notably, the nursing industry has created negligence when it comes to studying the facts about the cardiovascular disease among the Native Americans. There has been a presentation about the epidemiology to help boost the understanding of the disease. Cardiovascular disease includes; stroke, hypertension, and coronary artery diseases among other minor ones. This presentation had selectively studied cultural, socioeconomic as well as governmental influence on these illnesses. This essay will cover the general areas that will enlighten more about the cardiovascular diseases.
The heart disease is ranked top as the most known killer. However, stroke still features with a position of number six. This is according to the results that were released by researchers. The heart disease has the highest death rate that is above that of Alaska with 20%. These statistics was delivered between 1996 to 1998. This was done in comparison with other US races that existed in 1997. The research based on the number of death certificates they received. The highest number heart complications wer reported in large numbers from Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota. Among the counties with cases of stroke, Idaho, Alaska, and Washington had the largest death rates related to stroke illnesses. It was found that, the Native Americans from the Alaska, had high cases of death associated with the young people compared to others races that stay in the United States. The death rates for the young ages below the age of 65. The deaths were 36% of the whole number of deceased. The native Americans that had diabetes were vulnerable to the wrath of cardiovascular disease. The most people who indulged in cigarette smoking were prone to heart complications. Smoking could quickly lead to stroke as well as high death rates. Again, the research shows that the native Americans were more affected compared to other races in The US. They had a risk factor of 44.1% compared to The Southwest, which had a risk factor of 21,2% (Resnick, 2003).
Differences in the wellness of males and females could often reflect the simultaneousness and influence of both sex as well as gender. Not only can gender relationsaffect the expression of biological traits, but also sex-associated biological characteristics can contribute to amplifyinggender differentials in health. The relative contributions of gender relations and sex-linked biology to health differences between males and females depend on the particularhealth outcomes under research consideration.
In some instances, gender is the only sole determinant of a health outcome—for example gonadal digenesis among female with Turner’s syndrome (due to X-monosomy). In other cases, gender relations also account substantially for theobserved gender elements for any given health outcome. For example, the higher prevalence of needle-stick injuries among female compared to male healthcare workers, which on the other hand attributed to the gender segregation of the health care workforce (Grundy, 1999). The incidence of most HIV infections via needle-stick injuries were higher among female health care workers. This is due to the majority of doctors were men, the majority of nurses as well as phlebotomists are female. The profesionals getting the blood is relegated to most of the nurses and phlebotomists (who are mostly women).
The proposed life expectancy from the Native Americans improved but still trails that of other Americans by almost a scope offive years” (2010, HHS Indian Health Disparities Fact Sheet). About 55% of American Indians rely on the Indian Health Service for medical care .The Indian Health Care centres Improvement Acts only meets the stipulated 60% of their health needs .Due to underfunding, Indian Health Service facilities are crisis-driven and leave a wide gap in adequate and preventative health care for many Native Americans on the reservations. Pharmacies and doctor’s offices outside of hospitals are completely non-existent in some communities.
The pressures to shift from a traditional way of life toward a Western lifestyle has dramatically impacted the health. Welfare of the Native peoples and created a terrible epidemic of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, tuberculosis, and cancer.Culture can often be defined as a learned group of values, norms, beliefs and patterns of behavior. It is exceptionally difficult to describe or comprehend the extent to which ethnocentrism and racism have been woven into the fabric of our health care system. An examination of the beliefs and values inherent in the biomedical culture illuminates many barriers in caring for minority clients (Welty, 1999). These include:
• Patients who do not practice healthy behaviors “don’t care about their health.”
• Personal health is the most important priority for each family member.
• Biomedicine is “right.”
• Science is the only appropriate basis for practice.
• Traditional beliefs should be changed rather than built upon.
• Everyone understands the concept of “chronic illness.”
• People should and will follow directions given by health practitioners.
• Adherence failure is the patient’s problem.
• Patients have autonomy—except concerning the adherence.
• Health care is also made available and accessible to all (Howard, 1999).
Grundy, S. M., Benjamin, I. J., Burke, G. L., Chait, A., Eckel, R. H., Howard, B. V., … & Sowers, J. R. (1999). Diabetes and cardiovascular disease a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 100(10), 1134-1146.
Howard, B. V., Lee, E. T., Cowan, L. D., Devereux, R. B., Galloway, J. M., Go, O. T., … & Welty, T. K. (1999). Rising tide of cardiovascular disease in americanindians the strong heart study. Circulation, 99(18), 2389-2395.
Kannel, W. B., & McGee, D. L. (1979). Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study. Jama, 241(19), 2035-2038.
Resnick, H. E., Jones, K., Ruotolo, G., Jain, A. K., Henderson, J., Lu, W., & Howard, B. V. (2003). Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic American Indians the Strong Heart Study. Diabetes care, 26(3), 861-867.