Human Development Theories Research Paper
In this assignment you will identify and describe which theory or theories you believe best describes human development. You will also define each of the four forces of the biopsychosocial framework.
Objectives
Differentiate the four forces (biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life cycle) in the life cycle.
Defend your selection of the major theoretical perspective(s) on human development that most resonates with you.
Instructions
This is a two-part assignment. Write a 2-3 page paper in which you describe and support your selection of a theory or combination of theories of human development that describes with your viewpoints; explain why you chose this theory, and provide examples to support your selection. Next, you will define each of the four forces in the biopsychosocial framework. Provide an example for each of the forces.
Part I:
Choose a theory or theories of human development that you believe accurately accounts for human development.
Explain why you chose this theory/theories. (What do you like about the theory.)
Include examples from your life that support the validity of the theory.
Part II:
Define each of the four forces in the biopsychosocial framework.
Provide an example of each force from your life.
Choose one of the four forces and describe how it fits into the theory you used in Part I of this assignment.
Part 1 Answer
Choose a theory or theories of human development that you believe accurately accounts for human development.
Explain why you chose this theory/theories. (What do you like about the theory.)
Include examples from your life that support the validity of the theory.
The theories of human development try to explain how humans learn and expand their thinking as well as build characters. Sigmund Freud’s theory of human development is widely accepted by psychologists worldwide. It is called the psychosexual development hypothesis and argues that character builds up during infancy. During these stages, the libido or psychosexual energy plays a major role in shaping human behavior (Cameron, 2007). Freud argues that within the first five years, a person’s character or personality is already determined. He further insists that if a child goes through all the stages successfully, they will have a healthy character (Cameron, 2007).
According to Freud, the first stage is the oral stage where a child interacts through tasting and sucking. They depend on caretakers and as such trust develops at this stage. The main challenge at this stage is weaning the child to make them less dependent on caretakers. If this stage is not navigated properly, the person could develop dependency issues. The next stage is the anal stage whose successful navigation depends on toilet training. A person can develop an anal expulsive personality or an anal-retentive personality (Cameron, 2007). The former leads to wastefulness and a messiness while the latter leads to rigidity and possessiveness. A balance between the two is preferable and as such, parents should not be too lenient or too strict in toilet training.
The third stage is the phallic stage where the child discovers the difference between males and females. The fourth stage is the latent period where libido is suppressed and children are focused on hobbies and peers. This stage is crucial for the development of self-confidence and communication skills. The next stage is the genital stage where persons at puberty start to be attracted to persons of the opposite sex. The period lasts from puberty to death. This theory is quite easy to test through observations in young child. For instance, a person who fails to establish any social relationships at their phallic stage usually have confidence issues as well as an inability to maintain meaningful relationships (Simon & Gagnon, 2008).
Part 2 Answer
Define each of the four forces in the biopsychosocial framework.
Provide an example of each force from your life.
Choose one of the four forces and describe how it fits into the theory you used in Part I of this assignment.
The biopsychosocial framework refers to four forces that affect human development. The first force is the biological force, which composes of such things as health and genetics (Epstein & Borrell-Carrio, 2005). Gender for instance tends to dictate the activities that a person is interested. The second item in the framework is psychological forces, which include emotions. Emotions such as love tend to dictate how a person acts to others. The third item is socio-cultural forces while the last item is life-cycle events. Socio-cultural forces include forces while life-cycle events include going to church every Sunday.
Socio-cultural forces play a key role at every stage of Freud’s human development theory. At the anal stage, children trust those who are around them to take care of them. If the people around the child neglect them, the child could develop trust problems when older. At the anal stage, the person around a child determines the child’s ability to become responsible as they grow up by teaching them toilet skills (Suls & Rothman, 2004). At the phallic stage, the child observes how adults of opposite sexes act around each other. At the latent stage, the ability of a child to integrate into the society through friendships determines their ability to gain communication and relationship handling skills (Suls & Rothman, 2004).
References
Cameron, P. (2007). Confirmation of the Freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual
symbolism. Psychological reports, 21(1), 33-39.
Epstein, R. M., & Borrell-Carrio, F. (2005). The biopsychosocial model: Exploring six
impossible things. Families, Systems, & Health, 23(4), 426.
Simon, W., & Gagnon, J. (2008). Psychosexual development. Society, 35(2), 60-67.
Suls, J., & Rothman, A. (2004). Evolution of the biopsychosocial model: prospects and
challenges for health psychology. Health Psychology, 23(2), 119.

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