Juvenile Crime Theory Case Study Essay- Erick Rivera Jr
Erick Rivera Jr. 23, was sentenced for 57 years for the murder of Sean Taylor. Despite Florida having a death penalty, Rivera never faced because he was 17 years, at the time of the murder. However, he is required to serve 85% of his sentence, which means that he will be eligible for parole at 72 years. Also charged Timothy Brown, 22 years old. Timothy was 16 years at the time of the murder. Taylor was sentenced for armed robbery and murder. During his confession, Riviera said that a group of five men drove to Taylor’s house planning to steal large sums of money, which he normally kept inside his house. They assumed that Riviera will be have gone with his team to Tampa Bay, for a game. They did not know, until it was too late that he was at home, nursing knee injury. Taylor’s girlfriend and their 18 month old daughter were also at home. Taylor was killed when he confronted the group with a machete outside his bedroom. Taylor was shot in the thigh, destroying the femoral artery, which resulted in excessive blood loss. Taylor died while on arrival to the hospital on 26th November 2007. This article will examine criminological, sociological, and developmental theories that endeavour to explain delinquent behaviour among juveniles. Taylor case will be used as a point of reference.
Social learning theory is a psychological theory that help explain why children engage in criminal activities. The social learning theory implies that criminal behaviour is developed through close association with other (Akers & Jensen, 2011). This theory asserts that children are born good, but learn to be bad through association with others. The social learning theory states that all people have a chance to become criminals, because the contemporary society presents numerous opportunities for illegal activities, but one has a choice of not to engage (Andresen & Malleson, 2011). The social learning theory asserts that if a child grows in a clean society, which has strong moral and ethical values coupled with positive role models in the society and at home, the child is most probable to grow-up to attain his or her goals. The opposing scenario, when the child grows up in a poor neighbourhood where, he or she, is surrounded by drugs, gangs, and violence, the child may will grow-up committing crimes (Britt & Gottfredson, 2011). Environment also has a part to play, poverty stricken neighbourhoods where crime, alcohol and drug abuse go unchecked, the common path of children in those neighbourhoods is to join gangs, and this eventually leads them to commit crimes(Andresen & Malleson, 2011). The riches gained by street gangs through the sale of drugs is fuelling street war between various gangs this has caused an increase in the delinquency level, in the streets, these gangs are highly organised with structure a hierarchy they have a strict rule that must be followed by its members (Siegel & Welsh, 2011). Most of the times members are usually sent to carry out criminal activities and also new members are usually initiated into the gangs by committing a crime or killing someone else.
Social learning theory assumes that there are three instruments by which people learn to take part in the crime: beliefs, differential reinforcement, and modelling(Siegel & Welsh, 2011). Differential reinforcement of crime states that people can teach others to take part in the crime by punishing and reinforcing certain behaviours(Andresen & Malleson, 2011). Crime is more probable to happen when it is regularly reinforced and rarely punished, results in huge sums of reinforcement, such as social approval, money, or pleasure, and little penalty, and is more probable to be strengthened than alternate behaviours(Akers & Jensen, 2011). People who are strengthened for their crime are more prospective to take part in subsequent crime, particularly when they are in circumstances identical to those that were earlier reinforced. Other than reinforcing criminal behaviour, other people can also impart person views that are approving to crime(Andresen & Malleson, 2011). It essentially involves the endorsement of certain inconsequential forms of criminality, such as betting, and soft drug use, and for teenagers, curfew violation and curfew violation. Then it evolves to the justification, or approval of certain forms of law breaking activities, which includes some serious crimes(Akers & Jensen, 2011). These individuals believe that crime is wrong but that some criminal actions are admissible or even necessary in certain situations. Behaviour is not only the creation of reinforcements and beliefs or punishments that people receive(Siegel & Welsh, 2011). It is also a creation of the behaviour of those around people with associate with. Individuals often model or imitate, the behaviour of others, particularly if it is somebody that person looks up to or admires. Social learning theory elucidates the beginning of deviant and criminal conduct, but it can also clarify the transition into compliant behaviours(Andresen & Malleson, 2011). The quality of the associations that young people have with others is considerably related to their persistence or insistence in criminal conduct.
One of the main criticisms of social learning theory relates to its principal idea that increased relations with aberrant peers increases the chance that a person will embrace attitudes and values approving to criminal conduct through the device of rewards and punishments(Akers & Jensen, 2011). The critique focuses on the temporal ordering of the acceptance of deviant behaviours and attitudes, and the association with other deviant peers. Social learning theory is founded on the notion that it is a relationship with others (friends and family) that adds to the learning and successive acceptance of irregular conduct(Akers & Jensen, 2011). It has instead been recommended that young people could develop these deviant values and attitudes without earlier contact to it and then pursue peers with comparable behaviours and attitudes(Siegel & Welsh, 2011). The common theory of crime postulates that an individual’s tendency to crime (as demonstrated by low self-control) is steady throughout the course of life and it is the chances for crime that vary. The delinquent is a causal one that is, the source of the delinquency, from a critic’s perspective, is not associations with bad peers(Siegel & Welsh, 2011). In its place, delinquent attitudes or behaviours favourable to it are recognized before group interaction. From this perspective, people with low self-control seek out comparable peers(Andresen & Malleson, 2011).
This theory explains the criminal activities by Erick Riviera and Timothy Brown. This theory states that the contemporary society presents numerous opportunities for illegal activities, but one has a choice of not to engage (Akers & Jensen, 2011). Therefore, as Riviera claims, he was not aware that his friends were planning to go and rob Taylor, he only found out after they had arrived at his residence. The society presented a chance to carry out an armed robbery, he also had a choice of not engaging in the illegal activity, but he chose to join his fellow group member, which resulted in the murder (Siegel & Welsh, 2011).
The social learning theory states that people participate in crime because of their relationship with others who take part in the crime. Their criminal behaviour is strengthened and they learn views that are favourable to crime (Britt & Gottfredson, 2011). They basically have criminal representations to associate with. As a result, these children come to see crime as something that is desired, or at least admissible in certain situations. Behaviour is a product of the behaviour of those people around. Individuals frequently model or replicate the behaviour of others, particularly if it is somebody that the person looks up to or admires (Britt & Gottfredson, 2011). This theory further states that individuals have a choice whether to engage in criminal activities or not. This further strengthen this theory. This theory assumes that all children who develop in a violent environment will become criminals, which is not always the case.
Erick Rivera, Timothy Brown and others killed Taylor on 26th November 2007. Social learning theory was adopted to explain the delinquency crime in this case. The social learning theory states that people participate in crime because of their relationship with others who take part in the crime. Their criminal behaviour is strengthened and they learn views that are favourable to crime. The social learning theory states that all people have a chance to become criminals, because the contemporary society presents numerous opportunities for illegal activities, but one has a choice of not to engage. Rivera and Brown had a choice and they chose to take part in the crime.
References – Buy Criminal justice essays and research paper online
Akers, R. L., & Jensen, G. F. (2011). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime. Washinton DC: Transaction Publishers.
Andresen, M. A., & Malleson, N. (2011). Testing the stability of crime patterns: Implications for theory and policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(1), 58-82.
Britt, C. L., & Gottfredson, M. R. (2011). Control theories of crime and delinquency. Transaction Publishers.
Siegel, L., & Welsh, B. (2011). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. New York: Cengage Learning.
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