Population Problem Essay and  Annotated Bibliography
It is often very difficult discussing the issue of population problem on earth. A mere look at the reaction of people when the subject of population is brought up is an indication of the difficulties associated with the issue of population. Indeed, the population problem has been ignored by people world over to the extent that it has remained unresolved. The evolution of human beings has taken place under very harsh conditions owing to the existence of infections, illnesses, famines, war and accidents. Consequently, the surviving people had to practice high level of fertility to increase the chances of offspring survival in the midst of several challenges inhibiting survival of children into adulthood. Although people observed a high level of fertility, it took several centuries for the population of mankind to reach one billion; the 19th century to be precise. The intensified discoveries in the twentieth century saw a massive population explosion brought about by the numerous discoveries and advancements in healthcare globally. The rate of mortality massively declined and high improvements in longevity took over. Although there was a realization by global citizens that population was growing at a rapid rate, the measures taken did not have immediate effect of slowing down the increase in population size. The effect has been an increase in global population to more than five times within just 100 years with the global population currently over 7 billion.
The changes from a population characterized with high fertility and high mortality to one with low fertility and low mortality is described as demographic transition. There are normally four phases through which demographic transition occurs namely: fall in death rate hence increased longevity and population growth, the second phase is characterized with fall in birth rate at a less steep rate than fall in death rate hence population growth, the third phase is characterized with a plateau in death rates and attainment of replacement fertility level with continuous population growth as more population is in the reproduction stage. The last phase is characterized with fall in birth rates to levels below replacement as well as reduced population in reproduction stages hence a stable population and in some extent there are negative population growth rates.
Although demographic transition indicates the existence of a continuous increase in population to different levels leading to eventual stability of the population as well as negative population growth, the current global population is at a phase of massive increase. The consequent outcomes of the rapid population increase include loss of biodiversity, environmental stress, increased pressure on natural resources, as well as climate change. The increasing global human numbers are expected to further worsen the already bad situation for world. The annual growth of global population is estimated to be over 83 million people. Furthermore, there are very minimal deaths in comparison to deaths meaning that the global population is expected to further rise to massive levels. There are also an increasing number of populations within the reproductive stages. The surge in population as well as the increasing individual consumption rates has been associated with huge human claims on the planet earth beyond the natural capacity.
The motivation to pursue the topic on population problem is based on the ever intensifying level of pressure being put on the planet earth by the ever increasing population size. It is also a worrying trend to realize that most of the earth’s natural resources being overstretched. There is an increasing rate of overcrowding in many world cities and settlements   further indicating the effects of increased population. Many global cities have several slums where people live in congested informal settlements. There are increasing unemployment rates owing to many educated people more than the current market demand. The basic questions guiding this research include: what are the negative impacts of population growth on the planet earth? What problems are associated with population increase? Are there possible solutions to current global population problems?
Annotated Bibliography
Collodi, Jason & Freida M’Cormack. “Population Growth, Environment and Food Security: What Does the Future Hold?” Horizon Pilot Issue, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex. 2009.
The article looks at the growth in population and the pressure it has on food security and environmental problems. The article acknowledges that there has been an unchecked population growth over the past decades that have led to massive social problems and environmental pressure. From the article it is evident that the global population has been increasing at an alarming rate leading to very massive pressure on the earth’s ability. The information contained in this article is very useful in answering the question of population problem as it enumerates the various current challenges associated with the increasing global population. Indeed, the article’s arguments are true as the current global population growth is imparting extreme pressure on the planet earth.
Brown, Lester, R., Gary Gardner, & Brian Halwell. “Sixteen Dimensions of the Population Problem.” WORLDWARCH PAPER 143, September 1998.
From the article, it can be seen that the global human population has increased by close to three times since the 1950s when the global population was only 2.5 billion. Interestingly, some of the global senior citizens were alive when the global population was just 2.5 billion. The explanation to such a reality is that the past few decades have been characterized with a population increase of high rates such that the existing generation has seen a doubling and close to a triple of the initial population. The worrying trend about the population growth in the past few decades is that the period has been characterized with massive population growth to surpass the 4 million years of the earth’s existence. The article argues that the surge in population size has been associated with high consumption levels per individual hence putting enormous pressure on the planet earth. The article will be highly useful in answering the questions under discussion in the topic as it provides detailed information about the actual contexts of global population growth.
Hardin, Garrett. “There Is No Global Population Problem.” The Social Contract, Fall 2001.
The article is based on Malthus’ distribution of world population with the popular article, Essay on Population over two hundred years ago. The article acknowledges that the current rate of population increase globally is more than five times the rate of Malthus’ time. Although the article’s title seems to downplay the negative outcomes associated with the increasing global population, the author argues that there is need for population control. The author further argues that although numerous trials have been made towards the implementation of population control, there have been widespread failures. Indeed, it is true that attempts to control population growth have been implemented half-heartedly. Astonishingly, the proposals to implement population control may not be widely acceptable and the acceptable proposals are not working. The arguments in this article are highly valuable in discussing the global population problem and answering the associated questions.
McDougall, Rosamund. “Too Many People: Earth’s Population Problem.” The Optimum Population Trust, 2009.
The article is exceptionally detailed as it contains numerous statistical data about the population trends in the world. It further elaborates on the various challenges associated with the ever increasing population size. For instance, it cites various negative outcomes of massive population growth such as loss of biodiversity, stress on the environment, climate change, as well as extreme pressure on the limited natural resources. The article further gives out detailed phases through which the global human population has gone through indicating a worrying trend if measures to salvage the situation are not implemented soon. The article also gives detailed projections for future global population levels. The information will be very important for this topic as it will provide very data to refer to.
“Population Growth, Trends, Projections, Challenges and Opportunities.”
This highly valuable article details the actual contexts of the global population size and the associated pressure. It enumerates the various stages through which human population has evolved since the early days of high fertility rates to the current low fertility levels and low mortality rates. The article gives important details about the global trends in population as well as the contexts of India where serious population problems exist. The article refers to very reliable global statistical data through which it explains the numerous issues facing global population trends. The article will be very useful in offering appropriate answers to the discussions questions as it has detailed scenario about the global population problems.
Bystroff, Chris. “Resolving Global Overpopulation.” Rensselaer. 2010.
This article is an important reference to provide an answer to the question on how to salvage the situation of population problem currently facing the globe. The author argues that people have tried to avoid the topic on population management and control to the extent that the problem has remained unresolved for many centuries. The author uses very humorous examples and even pictorial demonstrations to argue his case out pertaining to the biting reality of population pressure. There are extreme challenges associated with increasing global population meaning that the world requires practical and workable solutions for the prevailing scenario. The article contains numerous scientific and statistical details explaining the extent population pressure on planet earth. The explanations offered by the article on the ways of managing population problems are very relevant for this discussion.
The references analyzed above are highly valuable and relevant for the discussion of this topic. In particular, the references have profound benefits in outlining detailed information needed to unravel the topic on global population problem. There various articles have also utilized available statistics on the global population trends. They have indicated that the current population trends being witnessed in the world have highly negative implications on the world leading to negative pressure on the natural resources, climate change, loss in biodiversity and numerous other negative outcomes. Furthermore, the articles have detailed information on the continuous global population problem. Some of the details contained in the articles are surprising especially knowledge that the past few decades have seen the global population increase by almost two times and that the population increase over the past few decades has been more than the global population for 4 million years. Indeed, there is need for serious population control to be effected to save man from himself.

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