Eukaryotic microbes are single-celled multi-cellular case organisms that belong to Eukaryota domain and are characterized by cells containing a membrane-bound nucleus. Examples of such eukaryotic microbes include protozoa, yeast, Euglena, Fungi and Malaria parasite. Examples of diseases caused by eukaryotic microbes include Malaria, Toxoplasmosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Trichomoniasis, Ringworm, Tinea capitis, Tinea cruris, Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal candidiasis and Tinea pedis. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum using Anopheles mosquito as the vector and affects red blood cells and the liver. Cryptosporidiosis commonly found in a variety of animal and human intestines. Ringworms are caused by fungal agents such as Dermatophytes acquired by contact with infected skin cell or hair.Candidiasis is caused by Candida albicans that are a member of vaginal and gastrointestinal microbiota.
Vaccine development for diseases caused by protists is a challenge because there is the lack of adequate information on the infection exposure posted by the vaccine on the recipient. Inadequate pre-clinal data and detailed information regarding protective immunity lead to final product failure. For tropical diseases, there is inadequate access to the required vaccine that poses difficulties in the development of the right vaccine for protists. Most protists have a complex life cycle that poses a major challenge for developing the right vaccine against diseases associated with protists.
The main biological reason affecting the development of vaccine caused by protists is the complex life cycle of these eukaryotic microbes. This poses challenges as it is hard to establish the right stage of these microbes that causes disease. Funding for research involving protists vaccine development may be the main geopolitical reason posing a significant challenge and issue arise when funding for this projects
Eukaryotic Microbes Research Paper Reference
Hollar, S. (2012). A closer look at bacteria, algae, and protozoa. New York: Britannica